AFNI file: README.bzip2
The following is the README, man page, and LICENSE files for the bzip2
utility, which is included in the AFNI package. The home page for
bzip2 is http://www.muraroa.demon.co.uk/ , where the entire bzip2
distribution can be found.
This program is included to allow compressed dataset .BRIK files to be
used with AFNI. See the file README.compression for more information.
Note that bzip2 usually compresses more than gzip or compress, but is
This is the README for bzip2, my block-sorting file compressor,
bzip2 is distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2;
for details, see the file LICENSE. Pointers to the algorithms used
are in ALGORITHMS. Instructions for use are in bzip2.1.preformatted.
Please read all of this file carefully.
HOW TO BUILD
-- for UNIX:
Type `make'. (tough, huh? :-)
This creates binaries "bzip2", and "bunzip2",
which is a symbolic link to "bzip2".
It also runs four compress-decompress tests to make sure
things are working properly. If all goes well, you should be up &
running. Please be sure to read the output from `make'
just to be sure that the tests went ok.
To install bzip2 properly:
-- Copy the binary "bzip2" to a publically visible place,
possibly /usr/bin, /usr/common/bin or /usr/local/bin.
-- In that directory, make "bunzip2" be a symbolic link
-- Copy the manual page, bzip2.1, to the relevant place.
Probably the right place is /usr/man/man1/.
-- for Windows 95 and NT:
For a start, do you *really* want to recompile bzip2?
The standard distribution includes a pre-compiled version
for Windows 95 and NT, `bzip2.exe'.
This executable was created with Jacob Navia's excellent
port to Win32 of Chris Fraser & David Hanson's excellent
ANSI C compiler, "lcc". You can get to it at the pages
of the CS department of Princeton University,
I have not tried to compile this version of bzip2 with
a commercial C compiler such as MS Visual C, as I don't
have one available.
Note that lcc is designed primarily to be portable and
fast. Code quality is a secondary aim, so bzip2.exe
runs perhaps 40% slower than it could if compiled with
a good optimising compiler.
I compiled a previous version of bzip (0.21) with Borland
C 5.0, which worked fine, and with MS VC++ 2.0, which
didn't. Here is an comment from the README for bzip-0.21.
MS VC++ 2.0's optimising compiler has a bug which, at
maximum optimisation, gives an executable which produces
garbage compressed files. Proceed with caution.
I do not know whether or not this happens with later
versions of VC++.
Edit the defines starting at line 86 of bzip.c to
select your platform/compiler combination, and then compile.
Then check that the resulting executable (assumed to be
called bzip.exe) works correctly, using the SELFTEST.BAT file.
Bearing in mind the previous paragraph, the self-test is
Note that the defines which bzip-0.21 had, to support
compilation with VC 2.0 and BC 5.0, are gone. Windows
is not my preferred operating system, and I am, for the
moment, content with the modestly fast executable created
A manual page is supplied, unformatted (bzip2.1),
preformatted (bzip2.1.preformatted), and preformatted
and sanitised for MS-DOS (bzip2.txt).
bzip2 should work on any 32 or 64-bit machine. It is known to work
[meaning: it has compiled and passed self-tests] on the
following platform-os combinations:
Intel i386/i486 running Linux 2.0.21
Sun Sparcs (various) running SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5
Intel i386/i486 running Windows 95 and NT
DEC Alpha running Digital Unix 4.0
Following the release of bzip-0.21, many people mailed me
from around the world to say they had made it work on all sorts
of weird and wonderful machines. Chances are, if you have
a reasonable ANSI C compiler and a 32-bit machine, you can
get it to work.
The #defines starting at around line 82 of bzip2.c supply some
degree of platform-independance. If you configure bzip2 for some
new far-out platform which is not covered by the existing definitions,
please send me the relevant definitions.
I recommend GNU C for compilation. The code is standard ANSI C,
except for the Unix-specific file handling, so any ANSI C compiler
should work. Note however that the many routines marked INLINE
should be inlined by your compiler, else performance will be very
poor. Asking your compiler to unroll loops gives some
small improvement too; for gcc, the relevant flag is
On a 386/486 machines, I'd recommend giving gcc the
-fomit-frame-pointer flag; this liberates another register for
allocation, which measurably improves performance.
I used the abovementioned lcc compiler to develop bzip2.
I would highly recommend this compiler for day-to-day development;
it is fast, reliable, lightweight, has an excellent profiler,
and is generally excellent. And it's fun to retarget, if you're
into that kind of thing.
If you compile bzip2 on a new platform or with a new compiler,
please be sure to run the four compress-decompress tests, either
using the Makefile, or with the test.bat (MSDOS) or test.cmd (OS/2)
files. Some compilers have been seen to introduce subtle bugs
when optimising, so this check is important. Ideally you should
then go on to test bzip2 on a file several megabytes or even
tens of megabytes long, just to be 110% sure. ``Professional
programmers are paranoid programmers.'' (anon).
Correct operation, in the sense that a compressed file can always be
decompressed to reproduce the original, is obviously of paramount
importance. To validate bzip2, I used a modified version of
Mark Nelson's churn program. Churn is an automated test driver
which recursively traverses a directory structure, using bzip2 to
compress and then decompress each file it encounters, and checking
that the decompressed data is the same as the original. As test
material, I used several runs over several filesystems of differing
One set of tests was done on my base Linux filesystem,
410 megabytes in 23,000 files. There were several runs over
this filesystem, in various configurations designed to break bzip2.
That filesystem also contained some specially constructed test
files designed to exercise boundary cases in the code.
This included files of zero length, various long, highly repetitive
files, and some files which generate blocks with all values the same.
The other set of tests was done just with the "normal" configuration,
but on a much larger quantity of data.
Linux FS, 410M, 23000 files
As above, with --repetitive-fast
As above, with -1
Low level disk image of a disk containing
Windows NT4.0; 420M in a single huge file
Linux distribution, incl Slackware,
all GNU sources. 1900M in 2300 files.
Approx ~100M compiler sources and related
programming tools, running under Purify.
About 500M of data in 120 files of around
4 M each. This is raw data from a
biomagnetometer (SQUID-based thing).
Overall, total volume of test data is about
3300 megabytes in 25000 files.
The distribution does four tests after building bzip. These tests
include test decompressions of pre-supplied compressed files, so
they not only test that bzip works correctly on the machine it was
built on, but can also decompress files compressed on a different
machine. This guards against unforseen interoperability problems.
Please read and be aware of the following:
This program (attempts to) compress data by performing several
non-trivial transformations on it. Unless you are 100% familiar
with *all* the algorithms contained herein, and with the
consequences of modifying them, you should NOT meddle with the
compression or decompression machinery. Incorrect changes can and
very likely *will* lead to disastrous loss of data.
I TAKE NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY LOSS OF DATA ARISING FROM THE
USE OF THIS PROGRAM, HOWSOEVER CAUSED.
Every compression of a file implies an assumption that the
compressed file can be decompressed to reproduce the original.
Great efforts in design, coding and testing have been made to
ensure that this program works correctly. However, the complexity
of the algorithms, and, in particular, the presence of various
special cases in the code which occur with very low but non-zero
probability make it impossible to rule out the possibility of bugs
remaining in the program. DO NOT COMPRESS ANY DATA WITH THIS
PROGRAM UNLESS YOU ARE PREPARED TO ACCEPT THE POSSIBILITY, HOWEVER
SMALL, THAT THE DATA WILL NOT BE RECOVERABLE.
That is not to say this program is inherently unreliable. Indeed,
I very much hope the opposite is true. bzip2 has been carefully
constructed and extensively tested.
To the best of my knowledge, bzip2 does not use any patented
algorithms. However, I do not have the resources available to
carry out a full patent search. Therefore I cannot give any
guarantee of the above statement.
End of legalities.
I hope you find bzip2 useful. Feel free to contact me at
if you have any suggestions or queries. Many people mailed me with
comments, suggestions and patches after the releases of 0.15 and 0.21,
and the changes in bzip2 are largely a result of this feedback.
I thank you for your comments.
18 July 1996 (version 0.15)
25 August 1996 (version 0.21)
Guildford, Surrey, UK
7 August 1997 (bzip2, version 0.1)
29 August 1997 (bzip2, version 0.1pl2)
bzip2 - a block-sorting file compressor, v0.1
bzip2 [ -cdfkstvVL123456789 ] [ filenames ... ]
Bzip2 compresses files using the Burrows-Wheeler block-
sorting text compression algorithm, and Huffman coding.
Compression is generally considerably better than that
achieved by more conventional LZ77/LZ78-based compressors,
and approaches the performance of the PPM family of sta-
The command-line options are deliberately very similar to
those of GNU Gzip, but they are not identical.
Bzip2 expects a list of file names to accompany the com-
mand-line flags. Each file is replaced by a compressed
version of itself, with the name "originalname.bz2".
Each compressed file has the same modification date and
permissions as the corresponding original, so that these
properties can be correctly restored at decompression
time. File name handling is naive in the sense that there
is no mechanism for preserving original file names, per-
missions and dates in filesystems which lack these con-
cepts, or have serious file name length restrictions, such
Bzip2 and bunzip2 will not overwrite existing files; if
you want this to happen, you should delete them first.
If no file names are specified, bzip2 compresses from
standard input to standard output. In this case, bzip2
will decline to write compressed output to a terminal, as
this would be entirely incomprehensible and therefore
Bunzip2 (or bzip2 -d ) decompresses and restores all spec-
ified files whose names end in ".bz2". Files without this
suffix are ignored. Again, supplying no filenames causes
decompression from standard input to standard output.
You can also compress or decompress files to the standard
output by giving the -c flag. You can decompress multiple
files like this, but you may only compress a single file
this way, since it would otherwise be difficult to sepa-
rate out the compressed representations of the original
Compression is always performed, even if the compressed
file is slightly larger than the original. Files of less
than about one hundred bytes tend to get larger, since the
compression mechanism has a constant overhead in the
region of 50 bytes. Random data (including the output of
most file compressors) is coded at about 8.05 bits per
byte, giving an expansion of around 0.5%.
As a self-check for your protection, bzip2 uses 32-bit
CRCs to make sure that the decompressed version of a file
is identical to the original. This guards against corrup-
tion of the compressed data, and against undetected bugs
in bzip2 (hopefully very unlikely). The chances of data
corruption going undetected is microscopic, about one
chance in four billion for each file processed. Be aware,
though, that the check occurs upon decompression, so it
can only tell you that that something is wrong. It can't
help you recover the original uncompressed data. You can
use bzip2recover to try to recover data from damaged
Return values: 0 for a normal exit, 1 for environmental
problems (file not found, invalid flags, I/O errors, &c),
2 to indicate a corrupt compressed file, 3 for an internal
consistency error (eg, bug) which caused bzip2 to panic.
Bzip2 compresses large files in blocks. The block size
affects both the compression ratio achieved, and the
amount of memory needed both for compression and decom-
pression. The flags -1 through -9 specify the block size
to be 100,000 bytes through 900,000 bytes (the default)
respectively. At decompression-time, the block size used
for compression is read from the header of the compressed
file, and bunzip2 then allocates itself just enough memory
to decompress the file. Since block sizes are stored in
compressed files, it follows that the flags -1 to -9 are
irrelevant to and so ignored during decompression. Com-
pression and decompression requirements, in bytes, can be
Compression: 400k + ( 7 x block size )
Decompression: 100k + ( 5 x block size ), or
100k + ( 2.5 x block size )
Larger block sizes give rapidly diminishing marginal
returns; most of the compression comes from the first two
or three hundred k of block size, a fact worth bearing in
mind when using bzip2 on small machines. It is also
important to appreciate that the decompression memory
requirement is set at compression-time by the choice of
For files compressed with the default 900k block size,
bunzip2 will require about 4600 kbytes to decompress. To
support decompression of any file on a 4 megabyte machine,
bunzip2 has an option to decompress using approximately
half this amount of memory, about 2300 kbytes. Decompres-
sion speed is also halved, so you should use this option
only where necessary. The relevant flag is -s.
In general, try and use the largest block size memory con-
straints allow, since that maximises the compression
achieved. Compression and decompression speed are virtu-
ally unaffected by block size.
Another significant point applies to files which fit in a
single block -- that means most files you'd encounter
using a large block size. The amount of real memory
touched is proportional to the size of the file, since the
file is smaller than a block. For example, compressing a
file 20,000 bytes long with the flag -9 will cause the
compressor to allocate around 6700k of memory, but only
touch 400k + 20000 * 7 = 540 kbytes of it. Similarly, the
decompressor will allocate 4600k but only touch 100k +
20000 * 5 = 200 kbytes.
Here is a table which summarises the maximum memory usage
for different block sizes. Also recorded is the total
compressed size for 14 files of the Calgary Text Compres-
sion Corpus totalling 3,141,622 bytes. This column gives
some feel for how compression varies with block size.
These figures tend to understate the advantage of larger
block sizes for larger files, since the Corpus is domi-
nated by smaller files.
Compress Decompress Decompress Corpus
Flag usage usage -s usage Size
-1 1100k 600k 350k 914704
-2 1800k 1100k 600k 877703
-3 2500k 1600k 850k 860338
-4 3200k 2100k 1100k 846899
-5 3900k 2600k 1350k 845160
-6 4600k 3100k 1600k 838626
-7 5400k 3600k 1850k 834096
-8 6000k 4100k 2100k 828642
-9 6700k 4600k 2350k 828642
Compress or decompress to standard output. -c will
decompress multiple files to stdout, but will only
compress a single file to stdout.
Force decompression. Bzip2 and bunzip2 are really
the same program, and the decision about whether to
compress or decompress is done on the basis of
which name is used. This flag overrides that mech-
anism, and forces bzip2 to decompress.
The complement to -d: forces compression, regard-
less of the invokation name.
Check integrity of the specified file(s), but don't
decompress them. This really performs a trial
decompression and throws away the result, using the
low-memory decompression algorithm (see -s).
Keep (don't delete) input files during compression
Reduce memory usage, both for compression and
decompression. Files are decompressed using a mod-
ified algorithm which only requires 2.5 bytes per
block byte. This means any file can be decom-
pressed in 2300k of memory, albeit somewhat more
slowly than usual.
During compression, -s selects a block size of
200k, which limits memory use to around the same
figure, at the expense of your compression ratio.
In short, if your machine is low on memory (8
megabytes or less), use -s for everything. See
MEMORY MANAGEMENT above.
Verbose mode -- show the compression ratio for each
file processed. Further -v's increase the ver-
bosity level, spewing out lots of information which
is primarily of interest for diagnostic purposes.
Display the software version, license terms and
Same as -L.
-1 to -9
Set the block size to 100 k, 200 k .. 900 k when
compressing. Has no effect when decompressing.
See MEMORY MANAGEMENT above.
bzip2 injects some small pseudo-random variations
into very repetitive blocks to limit worst-case
performance during compression. If sorting runs
into difficulties, the block is randomised, and
sorting is restarted. Very roughly, bzip2 persists
for three times as long as a well-behaved input
would take before resorting to randomisation. This
flag makes it give up much sooner.
Opposite of --repetitive-fast; try a lot harder
before resorting to randomisation.
RECOVERING DATA FROM DAMAGED FILES
bzip2 compresses files in blocks, usually 900kbytes long.
Each block is handled independently. If a media or trans-
mission error causes a multi-block .bz2 file to become
damaged, it may be possible to recover data from the
undamaged blocks in the file.
The compressed representation of each block is delimited
by a 48-bit pattern, which makes it possible to find the
block boundaries with reasonable certainty. Each block
also carries its own 32-bit CRC, so damaged blocks can be
distinguished from undamaged ones.
bzip2recover is a simple program whose purpose is to
search for blocks in .bz2 files, and write each block out
into its own .bz2 file. You can then use bzip2 -t to test
the integrity of the resulting files, and decompress those
which are undamaged.
bzip2recover takes a single argument, the name of the dam-
aged file, and writes a number of files "rec0001file.bz2",
"rec0002file.bz2", etc, containing the extracted blocks.
The output filenames are designed so that the use of wild-
cards in subsequent processing -- for example, "bzip2 -dc
rec*file.bz2 > recovereddata" -- lists the files in the
bzip2recover should be of most use dealing with large .bz2
files, as these will contain many blocks. It is clearly
futile to use it on damaged single-block files, since a
damaged block cannot be recovered. If you wish to min-
imise any potential data loss through media or transmis-
sion errors, you might consider compressing with a smaller
The sorting phase of compression gathers together similar
strings in the file. Because of this, files containing
very long runs of repeated symbols, like "aabaabaabaab
..." (repeated several hundred times) may compress
extraordinarily slowly. You can use the -vvvvv option to
monitor progress in great detail, if you want. Decompres-
sion speed is unaffected.
Such pathological cases seem rare in practice, appearing
mostly in artificially-constructed test files, and in low-
level disk images. It may be inadvisable to use bzip2 to
compress the latter. If you do get a file which causes
severe slowness in compression, try making the block size
as small as possible, with flag -1.
Incompressible or virtually-incompressible data may decom-
press rather more slowly than one would hope. This is due
to a naive implementation of the move-to-front coder.
bzip2 usually allocates several megabytes of memory to
operate in, and then charges all over it in a fairly ran-
dom fashion. This means that performance, both for com-
pressing and decompressing, is largely determined by the
speed at which your machine can service cache misses.
Because of this, small changes to the code to reduce the
miss rate have been observed to give disproportionately
large performance improvements. I imagine bzip2 will per-
form best on machines with very large caches.
Test mode (-t) uses the low-memory decompression algorithm
(-s). This means test mode does not run as fast as it
could; it could run as fast as the normal decompression
machinery. This could easily be fixed at the cost of some
I/O error messages are not as helpful as they could be.
Bzip2 tries hard to detect I/O errors and exit cleanly,
but the details of what the problem is sometimes seem
This manual page pertains to version 0.1 of bzip2. It may
well happen that some future version will use a different
compressed file format. If you try to decompress, using
0.1, a .bz2 file created with some future version which
uses a different compressed file format, 0.1 will complain
that your file "is not a bzip2 file". If that happens,
you should obtain a more recent version of bzip2 and use
that to decompress the file.
Wildcard expansion for Windows 95 and NT is flaky.
bzip2recover uses 32-bit integers to represent bit posi-
tions in compressed files, so it cannot handle compressed
files more than 512 megabytes long. This could easily be
bzip2recover sometimes reports a very small, incomplete
final block. This is spurious and can be safely ignored.
RELATIONSHIP TO bzip-0.21
This program is a descendant of the bzip program, version
0.21, which I released in August 1996. The primary dif-
ference of bzip2 is its avoidance of the possibly patented
algorithms which were used in 0.21. bzip2 also brings
various useful refinements (-s, -t), uses less memory,
decompresses significantly faster, and has support for
recovering data from damaged files.
Because bzip2 uses Huffman coding to construct the com-
pressed bitstream, rather than the arithmetic coding used
in 0.21, the compressed representations generated by the
two programs are incompatible, and they will not interop-
erate. The change in suffix from .bz to .bz2 reflects
this. It would have been helpful to at least allow bzip2
to decompress files created by 0.21, but this would defeat
the primary aim of having a patent-free compressor.
For a more precise statement about patent issues in bzip2,
please see the README file in the distribution.
Huffman coding necessarily involves some coding ineffi-
ciency compared to arithmetic coding. This means that
bzip2 compresses about 1% worse than 0.21, an unfortunate
but unavoidable fact-of-life. On the other hand, decom-
pression is approximately 50% faster for the same reason,
and the change in file format gave an opportunity to add
data-recovery features. So it is not all bad.
Julian Seward, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The ideas embodied in bzip and bzip2 are due to (at least)
the following people: Michael Burrows and David Wheeler
(for the block sorting transformation), David Wheeler
(again, for the Huffman coder), Peter Fenwick (for the
structured coding model in 0.21, and many refinements),
and Alistair Moffat, Radford Neal and Ian Witten (for the
arithmetic coder in 0.21). I am much indebted for their
help, support and advice. See the file ALGORITHMS in the
source distribution for pointers to sources of documenta-
tion. Christian von Roques encouraged me to look for
faster sorting algorithms, so as to speed up compression.
Bela Lubkin encouraged me to improve the worst-case com-
pression performance. Many people sent patches, helped
with portability problems, lent machines, gave advice and
were generally helpful.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.
Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.
3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,
c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.
5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.
6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
`Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
Public License instead of this License.
This page auto-generated on
Wed Jul 28 19:40:58 EDT 2021